Category Archives: visualization

Quantile LOESS – Combining a moving quantile window with LOESS (R function)

In this post I will provide R code that implement’s the combination of repeated running quantile with the LOESS smoother to create a type of “quantile LOESS” (e.g: “Local Quantile Regression”).

This method is useful when the need arise to fit robust and resistant (Need to be verified) a smoothed line for a quantile (an example for such a case is provided at the end of this post).

If you wish to use the function in your own code, simply run inside your R console the following line:

source("http://www.r-statistics.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Quantile.loess_.r.txt")

Background

I came a cross this idea in an article titled “High throughput data analysis in behavioral genetics” by Anat Sakov, Ilan Golani, Dina Lipkind and my advisor Yoav Benjamini. From the abstract:

In recent years, a growing need has arisen in different fields, for the development of computational systems for automated analysis of large amounts of data (high-throughput). Dealing with non-standard noise structure and outliers, that could have been detected and corrected in manual analysis, must now be built into the system with the aid of robust methods. [...] we use a non-standard mix of robust and resistant methods: LOWESS and repeated running median.

The motivation for this technique came from “Path data” (of mice) which is

prone to suffer from noise and outliers. During progression a tracking system might lose track of the animal, inserting (occasionally very large) outliers into the data. During lingering, and even more so during arrests, outliers are rare, but the recording noise is large relative to the actual size of the movement. The statistical implications are that the two types of behavior require different degrees of smoothing and resistance. An additional complication is that the two interchange many times throughout a session. As a result, the statistical solution adopted needs not only to smooth the data, but also to recognize, adaptively, when there are arrests. To the best of our knowledge, no single existing smoothing technique has yet been able to fulfill this dual task. We elaborate on the sources of noise, and propose a mix of LOWESS (Cleveland, 1977) and the repeated running median (RRM; Tukey, 1977) to cope with these challenges

If all we wanted to do was to perform moving average (running average) on the data, using R, we could simply use the rollmean function from the zoo package.
But since we wanted also to allow quantile smoothing, we turned to use the rollapply function.

R function for performing Quantile LOESS

Here is the R function that implements the LOESS smoothed repeated running quantile (with implementation for using this with a simple implementation for using average instead of quantile):

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Nutritional supplements efficacy score – Graphing plots of current studies results (using R)

In this post I showcase a nice bar-plot and a balloon-plot listing recommended Nutritional supplements , according to how much evidence exists for thier benefits, scroll down to see it(and click here for the data behind it)
* * * *
The gorgeous blog “Information Is Beautiful” recently publish an eye candy post showing a “balloon race” image (see a static version of the image here) illustrating how much evidence exists for the benefits of various Nutritional supplements (such as: green tea, vitamins, herbs, pills and so on) . The higher the bubble in the Y axis score (e.g: the bubble size) for the supplement the greater the evidence there is for its effectiveness (But only for the conditions listed along side the supplement).

There are two reasons this should be of interest to us:

  1. This shows a fun plot, that R currently doesn’t know how to do (at least I wasn’t able to find an implementation for it). So if anyone thinks of an easy way for making one – please let me know.
  2. The data for the graph is openly (and freely) provided to all of us on this Google Doc.

The advantage of having the data on a google doc means that we can see when the data will be updated. But more then that, it means we can easily extract the data into R and have our way with it (Thanks to David Smith’s post on the subject)

For example, I was wondering what are ALL of the top recommended Nutritional supplements, an answer that is not trivial to get from the plot that was in the original post.

In this post I will supply two plots that present the data: A barplot (that in retrospect didn’t prove to be good enough) and a balloon-plot for a table (that seems to me to be much better).

Barplot
(You can click the image to enlarge it)

The R code to produce the barplot of Nutritional supplements efficacy score (by evidence for its effectiveness on the listed condition).

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# loading the data
supplements.data.0 < - read.csv("http://spreadsheets.google.com/pub?key=0Aqe2P9sYhZ2ndFRKaU1FaWVvOEJiV2NwZ0JHck12X1E&output=csv")
supplements.data <- supplements.data.0[supplements.data.0[,2] >2,] # let's only look at "good" supplements
supplements.data < - supplements.data[!is.na(supplements.data[,2]),] # and we don't want any missing data
 
supplement.score <- supplements.data[, 2]
ss <- order(supplement.score, decreasing  = F)	# sort our data
supplement.score <- supplement.score[ss]
supplement.name <- supplements.data[ss, 1]
supplement.benefits <- supplements.data[ss, 4]
supplement.score.col <- factor(as.character(supplement.score))
	levels(supplement.score.col) <-  c("red", "orange", "blue", "dark green")
	supplement.score.col <- as.character(supplement.score.col)
 
# mar: c(bottom, left, top, right) The default is c(5, 4, 4, 2) + 0.1.
par(mar = c(5,9,4,13))	# taking care of the plot margins
bar.y <- barplot(supplement.score, names.arg= supplement.name, las = 1, horiz = T, col = supplement.score.col, xlim = c(0,6.2),
				main = c("Nutritional supplements efficacy score","(by evidence for its effectiveness on the listed condition)", "(2010)"))
axis(4, labels = supplement.benefits, at = bar.y, las = 1) # Add right axis
abline(h = bar.y, col = supplement.score.col , lty = 2) # add some lines so to easily follow each bar

Also, the nice things is that if the guys at Information Is Beautiful will update there data, we could easily run the code and see the updated list of recommended supplements.

Balloon plot
So after some web surfing I came around an implementation of a balloon plot in R (Thanks to R graph gallery)
There where two problems with using the command out of the box. The first one was that the colors where non informative (easily fixed), the second one was that the X labels where overlapping one another. Since there is no “las” parameter in the function, I just opened the function up, found where this was plotted and changed it manually (a bit messy, but that’s what you have to do sometimes…)

Here are the result (you can click the image for a larger image):

And here is The R code to produce the Balloon plot of Nutritional supplements efficacy score (by evidence for its effectiveness on the listed condition).
(it’s just the copy of the function with a tiny bit of editing in line 146, and then using it)

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Fun interpretive dances for common statistical plots

My wife is a big lover of dance (especially Dance In Israel), and while reading through the NYtimes article: “To Impress, Tufts Prospects Turn to YouTube“, she found me a pearl: A woman performing interpretive dances for math/statistical plots. That includes small dance for: scatter plots, boxplots, barplots and a few others. Enjoy:

Web Development with R – an HD video tutorial of Jeroen Ooms talk

Here is a HD version of a video tutorial on web development with R, a lecture that was given by Jeroen Ooms (the guy who made A web application for R’s ggplot2). This talk was given at the Bay Area UseR Group meeting on R-Powered Web Apps.

You can also view the slides for his talk and view (great) examples for: stockplotlme4, and gpplot2.

Thanks again to Jeroen for sharing his knowledge and experience!

A web application for R’s ggplot2

One of the exciting new frontiers for R programming is of creating website interfaces to R code. At the forefront of this domain is a young and (very) bright man called Jeroen Ooms, whom I had the pleasure of meeting at useR 2009 (press the link to see his presentation).

Today Jeroen announced a new version (0.11) of his web interface to ggplot2. See it here:
http://www.yeroon.net/ggplot2/

As Jeroen wrote:

New features include 1D geom’s (histogram, density, freqpoly), syntax mode (by clicking the tiny arrow at the bottom), and some additional facet options. And some minor improvements and fixes, most notably for Internet Explorer.
The data upload has not been improved yet, I am working on that. For now, it supports .csv, .sav (spss), and tab delimited data. Please make sure your filename has the appropriate extension and every column has a header in your data. If you export a dataframe from R, use:
write.csv(mydf, ”mydf.csv” , row.names=F). If you upload an spss
datafile, none of this should be a concern.
Supported browsers are IE6-8, FF, Safari, and Chrome, but a recent browser is highly recommended. As always, feedback is more than welcome.

Here is a little demo video that shows how to use the new features:

The datafile from the demo is available at http://www.yeroon.net/ggplot2/myMovies.csv.

I wish the best to Jeroen, and hope to see many more such uses in the future.